Carson & Fleming now public domain (Canada)


As of January 1st, 2015, the writings of Rachel Carson, Ian Fleming, and other authors are in the public domain in Canada.  This means, for example, that you could take Fleming’s original 12 novels and 9 stories and freely reproduce them, make your own film versions of them, and create your own stories featuring James Bond… as long as they are for use in Canada.

(Note that the James Bond films are still protected by copyright, as are the 2 dozen James Bond novels written by authors sanctioned by the Fleming Estate.)

Most nations are signatories to the Berne Convention, which sets the minimum copyright term at 50 years after the death of the author.  The Convention allows countries to establish longer terms, which is what the United States and European Union have done, setting the base term as the life of the author plus 70 years.

Canada, among other countries, has kept the Berne Convention's 50-year term. This means that authors who passed away in 1964 had their works enter into the public domain when 2014 ended.

For more information, contact Melanie Wrobel in the Copyright Office at, or call 250-391-2652.


The public domain review: Class of 2015.

Bailey, Ian. (2015, January 23). Copyright quirk leaves James Bond up for grabs in Canada. The Globe and Mail. 

Siy, Sherwin. (2015, January 21). Die another Eh: What does it mean now that James Bond is in the public domain in Canada? TechDirt.

Trendacosta, Katharine. (2015, January 8). What does it mean that James Bond’s in the public domain in Canada?